Convert an APEX Application to Multi-Tenant

So you’ve built an APEX application to solve a problem for one client, or one department, or just yourself – and you think it might be useful for others as well. How do you make that application available for other users, departments, or companies to reuse, while ensuring each sees only their own data and cannot mess around with others’ data?

Architecting a Multi-Tenant Application

To make your application multi-tenant you have a few options.

Option #1. Copy the application to another workspace/schema, another Pluggable Database (in Oracle 12c+) or another database server entirely.

Option #2. Modify your data model to allow completely independant sets of data to co-exist in the same physical tables (e.g. a security_group_id column that allows the database to discriminate data for each tenant).

The desirable properties of a multi-tenant system are as follows:

a. Tenant isolation – no tenant sees data for another tenant; no tenant can affect the app’s behaviour for another tenant; protect against “noisy neighbours” (i.e. those which impact system capacity and performance).

Hadlow’s first law of multi-tenancy: A multi-tenanted application should not look like a multi-tenanted application.”

b. Administration – ability to backup/recover all data for a single tenant; ability to give a degree of control to each tenant (self service).

c. Maintainability – simplicity of deploying enhancements and bug fixes for all tenants, or for one tenant at a time (e.g. rolling upgrades).

d. Scalability – ability to easily add more tenants, ability to add more capacity for more tenants.

Some of these properties are more easily and effectively achieved with option #1 (separate servers or schemas for each tenant), such as Isolation and Administration. Other properties are more easily and effectively achieved with option #2 (discriminator column) such as Maintainability and Scalability. This is a gross generalisation of course; there are many solutions to this design problem each with many pros and cons.

Some inspiration may be gained from examining how Oracle Application Express achieves this goal: multi-tenant has been baked into the product, via its concept of Workspaces. Each tenant can be given their own workspace in APEX and are able to build and deploy applications in isolation from other workspaces. Internally, APEX maintains a unique security_group_id for each workspace. This works very well – a single Oracle database instance can serve thousands or tens of thousands of workspaces.

It should be noted that a benefit of pursuing Option #2 is that it does not necessarily preclude using Option #1 as well, should the need arise later on – for example, to provide more capacity or better performance in the presence of more demanding tenants. For this reason, plus the fact that it’s much easier to maintain and enhance an application for all users at once if they’re colocated, I prefer Option #2.

Note: all sample code for this article may be found here [].

Security Data Model

The core element to implementing a single-schema multi-tenant application is the addition of a tenant identifier added to most tables in the data model. A common convention for this column is to be a surrogate key ID named security_group_id. This ID must refer to something so we need a simple data model for security groups:

First, we need a row to represent each tenant in a table that has security_group_id as its primary key:

create sequence security_group_id_seq;

create table security_groups
( security_group_id number not null
, name varchar2(100) not null
, active_ind varchar2(1) default 'Y'

Next, whenever someone logs into the application it must identify what their security group ID is; in order to allow a single user to access more than one tenant (i.e. so they don’t need to create new logins for each tenant, if they work for more than one client or department) we will design a table that will allow a user to be a member of any number of security groups:

create table security_group_members
( security_group_id number not null
, app_user varchar2(200) not null
, last_login date
, active_ind varchar2(1) default 'Y'

The last_login will be updated whenever the user logs in; we will also use it to automatically select their most recent group when they login. The active_ind attribute will be used if we want to temporarily (or permanently) restrict someone from a group, without having to actually delete the record.

After they login, we might want to assign different roles to different users – e.g. we might want an “Administrator” role who can see and update everything in the system; and we might want to give a “Readonly” or reporting role to someone who only needs to see the data but are not allowed to make any updates. To support this, we need two tables – one to represent each type of role, and one to indicate for each member what role(s) they have for a particular security group.

create table security_roles
( role_code varchar2(100) not null
, name varchar2(100) not null
, active_ind varchar2(1) default 'Y'

create table security_group_roles
( security_group_id number not null
, app_user varchar2(200) not null
, role_code varchar2(100) not null
, active_ind varchar2(1) default 'Y'

The full DDL for these tables, including all the constraints, may be viewed here: security_tables.sql.

We have an active_ind attribute on both these tables – this way we can deactivate a role for a single user, or for all users at one go.

Note: optimising this data model with appropriate indexes has been left as an exercise for the reader 🙂

We can prime the tables with some basic details like this:

insert into security_roles (role_code,name) values ('ADMIN','Admin');
insert into security_roles (role_code,name) values ('EDITOR','Editor');
insert into security_roles (role_code,name) values ('READONLY','Readonly');

insert into security_groups (security_group_id,name)
  values (security_group_id_seq.nextval,'Default');

insert into security_group_members (security_group_id,app_user)
  values (security_group_id_seq.currval,'JEFF');

insert into security_group_roles (security_group_id,app_user,role_code)
  values (security_group_id_seq.currval,'JEFF','ADMIN');

We need a database package to setup an APEX session using the data in these tables.

create or replace package security_pkg is

procedure init
  (app_user          in varchar2 := null
  ,security_group_id in number := null
  ,apex              in boolean := true

end security_pkg;

The init procedure is called after a user is authenticated. If app_user is null it uses v('APP_USER'). It queries the relevant tables to determine if the user is active for the selected security group, or, if that parameter is left null, it gets the security group they most recently logged in to. The intention is that later we will give them the ability to “switch” to another security group within the app, if they have access to multiple tenants.

The full source code for the package may be viewed here: security_pkg.sql. The important procedure at this point is init.

create or replace package body security_pkg is

procedure sctx
  (attr in varchar2
  ,val  in varchar2
  ,apex in boolean) is
  if apex then
      (namespace => 'CTX'
      ,attribute => attr
      ,value     => val
      ,client_id => v('APP_USER') || ':' || v('SESSION'));
      (namespace => 'CTX'
      ,attribute => attr
      ,value     => val
      ,username  => user);
  end if;
end sctx;

procedure init
  (app_user          in varchar2 := null
  ,security_group_id in number := null
  ,apex              in boolean := true
  ) is
  cursor c
    (security_group_id in number
    ,app_user          in varchar2
    ) is
    select x.*
    from   security_group_members x
    join   security_groups g
    on     g.security_group_id = x.security_group_id
    where  x.app_user = c.app_user
    and    (x.security_group_id = c.security_group_id
            or c.security_group_id is null)
    and    x.active_ind = 'Y'
    and    g.active_ind = 'Y'
    order by x.last_login desc nulls last;
  r c%rowtype;
  open c
    (security_group_id => security_group_id
    ,app_user          => coalesce(app_user, v('APP_USER'))
  fetch c into r;
  close c;

  sctx('APP_USER', r.app_user, apex);
  sctx('SECURITY_GROUP_ID', r.security_group_id, apex);

  if apex
  and r.app_user is not null
  and r.security_group_id is not null then
    update security_group_members m
    set    last_login = sysdate
    where  m.security_group_id = r.security_group_id
    and    m.app_user = r.app_user;
  end if;

end init;

end security_pkg;

This package uses a globally accessible context (created by a user with CREATE ANY CONTEXT system privilege):

create context ctx using myschema.security_pkg accessed globally;

Since we set the client_id in the call to dbms_session.set_context that matches that set by APEX for each session, the context values will be automatically loaded for each database call from a valid APEX session. We can then use very efficient calls to sys_context('CTX','xyz') throughout the application’s PL/SQL and SQL, including views.

If we need to run code directly on the database, we can set up the security context for the session by calling security_pkg.init with apex=>false. This uses the username parameter of dbms_session.set_context instead of client_id (reference).

Side note: in APEX 5+ you might consider using APEX’s context to get APP_USER; however, this has the disadvantage that all database procedures that need to interact with the data must first set up an APEX session before they can work. The method I’ve used here allows batch jobs, for example, to simply call security_pkg.init with the user and security group ID directly.

APEX Authentication Scheme

We need to get APEX to set up the user’s context after they login; to do this we simply add the following call to the Post-Authentication Procedure Name attribute of the application’s current authentication scheme:


For more details on how Oracle application contexts work within APEX, refer to my earlier article, “APEX and Application Contexts”.

APEX Authorization Schemes

This step is not strictly part of the multi-tenant feature; I’ve included this step here as part of the implementation of the role-based security system we have created.

We can allow/disallow access to features of the APEX application according to the user’s roles in our security model, by creating Authorization Schemes. For example, we can create one to restrict features to Administrators only with a scheme like this:

Scheme Type = PL/SQL Function Returning Boolean
PL/SQL Function Body = return security_pkg.user_has_role('ADMIN');

I will typically create authorization schemes for each role; sometimes I’ll create a scheme that combines conditions on multiple roles (e.g. if a feature needs to be visible to more than one role).

The source code for the user_has_role function may be found in security_pkg.sql.

Discriminator Column

Now that the security data model is in place, we shall add the security_group_id column to all the tables in the application’s data model. In some cases you might decide to just add the column to the core tables of the data model; however, it’s more convenient to standardise and add it to all tables. You will find, however, that it is a requirement for any tables with any natural keys (i.e. non-surrogate primary keys, or unique constraints on user-entered data) because these will need to have the discriminator column added later on.

1. Set up a session

exec security_pkg.init('JEFF',apex=>false);

2. Add security_group_id column to the table

alter table mytable
  add security_group_id integer
  default sys_context('CTX','SECURITY_GROUP_ID') not null;

alter table mytable
  add constraint mytable$secfk
  foreign key (security_group_id)
  references security_group (security_group_id);

In my security package I have defined a simple VPD policy that will apply to all my tables. It returns a single, static string which will be added to any queries on the tables, to ensure that each user will only see rows for their security group.

function vpd_policy
  (object_schema in varchar2
  ,object_name in varchar2
  ) return varchar2 is
  return q'[
    security_group_id = sys_context('CTX','SECURITY_GROUP_ID')
end vpd_policy;

Call dbms_rls.add_policy for each table:

    (object_name     => 'MYTABLE'
    ,policy_name     => 'vpd_policy'
    ,policy_function => 'security_pkg.vpd_policy'
    ,update_check    => true
    ,static_policy   => true);

I set update_check to true to ensure that users cannot try to override the security group ID with any insert or update. Since the policy function returns the same string regardless of which user or session is executing it, I’ve also set static_policy to true which may give a small performance benefit.

Poor Man’s VPD

If you don’t have the Enterprise Edition of Oracle you might need to consider an alternative method – “Poor Man’s VPD”. This generally entails restricting access to all base tables (e.g. moving them to another schema) and only allowing queries and DML via a view for each table which incorporates the necessary predicate on security_group_id.

I’ve used the following procedure to convert a table to a view; it renames the table to add a suffix ($B) and creates a view (minus the security_group_id) on the same table, along with the necessary predicate, plus the with check option for good measure.

procedure table2view (table_name in varchar2) is
  l_table_name varchar2(30);
  l_columns varchar2(32767);
  l_table_name := upper(substr(table_name,1,30-length('$B')) || '$B');
    execute immediate 'alter table ' || table_name
      || ' rename to ' || l_table_name;
    when others then
      -- if the table doesn't exist, it was probably
      -- already converted; so we don't error out
      -- and recreate the view
      if sqlcode!=-942 then
      end if;
  for r in (select column_name 
            from   user_tab_columns 
            where  table_name = table2view.l_table_name
            and    column_name != 'SECURITY_GROUP_ID'
            order by column_id) loop
    if l_columns is not null then
      l_columns := l_columns || ',';
    end if;
    l_columns := l_columns || 'x.' || lower(r.column_name); 
  end loop;
  execute immediate replace(replace(replace(q'[
    create or replace force view #VIEW#
    as select #COLUMNS#
       from #TABLE# x
       where x.security_group_id = sys_context('CTX','SECURITY_GROUP_ID')
       with check option
end table2view;

Source: table2view.sql

To stop users from inserting or updating the security_group_id column, I’ve used a trigger that checks the before and after values on each insert, update and delete:

create trigger MYTABLE$TRG
before insert or update or delete on MYTABLE
for each row
  if updating or deleting then
      (security_group_id => :old.security_group_id);
  end if;
  if inserting then
    :new.security_group_id := sys_context('CTX','SECURITY_GROUP_ID');
  end if;
  if inserting or updating then
      (security_group_id => :new.security_group_id);
  end if;

I wrote a simple procedure to generate this trigger for each table, after adding the security_group_id column. Source: convert2multitenant.sql

Unique Constraints

There is one more hurdle to jump for this solution to work: uniqueness constraints. If one tenant tries to insert or update a row that collides with a value already committed for a different tenant, the uniqueness constraint will trap them. Therefore, we need to add security_group_id to all unique constraints (and any unique indexes as well, if any were created independently of any constraint). We would probably make an exception for surrogate keys, since these should already be generated by a globally unique method and should not be updatable by users. These could still cause a problem in the case that a tenant needs to import data from a different database instance, if any keys happen to collide; this may be a good argument for using GUIDs for generating surrogate keys instead of a sequence.

To convert the unique constraints to include security_group_id I’ve used the following procedure. If it is called with just the table name, it will attempt to convert all Unique constraints on the table. If it is called with the name of a particular constraint, it will attempt to convert just that one constraint (I use this for primary key constraints that need to be converted).

procedure fix_unique_constraint
  (table_name in varchar2
  ,constraint_name in varchar2 := null) is
  l_ddl varchar2(32767);
  for r in (
    select c.table_name, c.constraint_name
                 ,'P','primary key') as constraint_type
          ,(select listagg('"'||cc.column_name||'"',',')
                   within group (order by position)
            from   user_cons_columns cc
            where  cc.constraint_name = c.constraint_name
            and    cc.table_name = c.table_name
            and    cc.column_name != 'SECURITY_GROUP_ID'
           ) as column_list
    from user_constraints c
    where c.table_name = fix_unique_constraint.table_name
    and ((fix_unique_constraint.constraint_name is null
           and c.constraint_type = 'U')
         or c.constraint_name = fix_unique_constraint.constraint_name)
    ) loop

    -- drop the constraint

    l_ddl := 'alter table "' || r.table_name
      || '" drop constraint "' || r.constraint_name || '"';

    execute immediate l_ddl;

    -- recreate the constraint

    l_ddl := 'alter table "' || r.table_name
      || '" add constraint "' || r.constraint_name
      || '" ' || r.constraint_type
      || ' (security_group_id,' || r.column_list || ')';

    execute immediate l_ddl;

  end loop;
end fix_unique_constraint;

Source: fix_unique_constraint.sql

Note: one scenario this procedure fails to cover is where the constraint is based on an index of the same name that was created prior to the constraint; in that case, the constraint will not drop the index, causing the add constraint to fail when it tries to recreate the index.

Referential Constraints

In my case, the data model is replete with surrogate keys based on sequences, so we don’t need to worry about adding security_group_id to the primary key constraints. In cases where we do, we would also need to consider referential constraints. If a foreign key refers to a constraint to which we have just added security_group_id, we need to update the foreign key constraint to include it as well.

Writing this as an automated procedure is left as an exercise for the reader. This process would entail dropping all foreign key constraints that refer to the table, dropping the primary key constraint, recreating the primary key constraint with the addition of security_group_id, and then recreating the foreign keys, adding security_group_id to each.


This article describes a simple method to take an existing data model in an Oracle schema supporting an Oracle Application Express application and convert it to one that supports multiple tenants. It does this by adding a discriminator column (security_group_id) to each table in the data model, with a referential constraint to a simple user security data model.

We use triggers and Virtual Private Database (either Oracle’s builtin Row Level Security feature, or by rolling our own by hiding the tables behind views) to ensure tenant isolation for queries, inserts, updates and deletes. Only minor changes to the existing codebase and APEX application were required for all of this to work.

I hope this was an interesting read. Your comments or constructive criticism are (as always) welcome.

Further Reading

Related Slide Deck

One App, Many Clients: Converting an APEX Application to Multi-Tenant (presented at the AUSOUG Connect conference, November 2017)

AUSOUG Connect 2017 – see you in Perth
Report query with optional parameters


  1. Great writeup, option 2 i so much better in so many cases (even if we had the possibility to switch the application parsing schema at runtime)

    I was wondering what you thought about the idea of meeting this concept in the middle by grouping customers into different schemas with the exact same data model using the exact same RLS policies with the application parsing schema having grants to all these schemas including PLSQL and using “Alter session set current_schema” in the “Initialization PLSQL Code” in APEX.

    Basically you would need a mapping in the application parsing schema of which customer belonged to which schema and you would never reference #OWNER# in any APEX query. There is of course some overhead in managing this but you could then potentially have the benefit of performing upgrades/testing features against a subset of customers (since you could easily copy the APEX application (and upgrade it) and serve it to this subset of customers using something as a simple URL redirect and shared authentication scheme).

    This is all just in theory since I haven’t tested it out. But I would want this sort of behaviour if I was hosting a BIG multi-tennant application (feature wise) with lots of customers.

    Here’s another reference for some of the pro’s/con’s: Q#9526095800346914577

    • Hi Matt, thanks for your comments.

      It’s certainly an option to consider, using Oracle database schemas for tenant isolation. It’s much the same as the typical way this is done in MS SQL Server, as I understand it.

      However, I think creating separate schemas with duplicated data models etc. would be a nightmare to administer and probably overkill for most APEX applications. There would have to be a significant benefit to outweigh the cost – e.g. for a very large multi-tenant system with a multitude of clients, as you say.

      I believe a simple schema with VPD on APEX will scale very well to a large number of customers – and using a traditional separate database instance (or PDB) for dev/test purposes would be more than adequate to allow building and testing new features.

      There is, of course, many ways to skin this cat and what works for one situation will quite possibly be impractical for another.


  2. Well done, Jeff. Planned on skimming, but you hooked me. Read the entire thing.

  3. Juergen Schuster
    29 November 2017 - 11:10 pm

    Great piece, Thanks!

  4. Great read!

  5. Excellent post. Thanks.

  6. Fantastic article!

    What would your suggestion be for a table with shared data that can be accessed my multiple tenants?

    Would simply not adding a sec_grup_id column and vpd policy to the table be an option?

    • Hi John,

      Yes, that’s what you have to do for tables which are global reference tables. Since they need to be visible to all tenants, you don’t include the tenant identifier column or vpd policy.

  7. Great, thanks!

    Is there a way to enable individual colour scheme / theme roller style per tenant?

  8. Moutasem Shkeir
    7 March 2018 - 11:35 pm

    Jeffrey Kemp,
    This is the greatest post I’ve ever read about such mechanism, I’ve just finished reading it all.

    I have very strong background with Oracle Forms, and I have developed a full-featured framework:
    – Customized role-based authorization available to the customer to manage it by himself, which include creating roles, defining authorizations to roles, creating users, assigning users to multi-roles and hiding critical data from specific end-users.
    – Runtime block data ordering for many columns (asc, desc).
    – Exporting, importing data using csv data files.
    – A multi-lingual user interface (English, French and Arabic), where end-user can change between them (with the data).
    – And a lot more features.

    I read a lot about Apex and I found it the best alternative for my development tool.

    However, there are two concerns that may come up.
    The first concern is, if tenants belong to many different regions where timezone will differ, what to do in this case where most columns with date datatype have a default value as (sysdate)?
    The second concern is about authorizing pages and components on them (regions, fields, buttons and processes) for different roles, and enabling the customer to manage that by himself, would that be available in the multi-tenant environment, and how that would be achieved?

    Thanks in advance.

  9. Hi Moutasem Shkeir,

    Thanks for your your comments. To answer your questions:

    1) Tenants in multiple timezones – I haven’t tackled this problem before, but I think a good idea is to avoid using dates and sysdate, and convert your application to use TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIMEZONE – but have a read of these articles:

    You could use APEX’s automatic time zone feature for this purpose (although it causes a once-off redirect on the client); or, if each tenant needs to share a single timezone for all its users, have it as an attribute for the security group, and set the session timezone using APEX_UTIL.set_session_time_zone after login (

    2) Setting up a user-customizable authorization system is complex but certainly doable. I don’t, however, believe that giving end-users the ability to show or hide every single individual button, item or other control in APEX is either necessary or even desired by users. Instead, they almost always want the ability to grant privileges at a generic “role” level. In other words, a user doesn’t care about controlling each and every “Edit” button on every page – but might care whether they can edit certain records or not.

    I’m currently in the process of building a system like this for a client. My data model has a table that defines all the “privileges” that can be assigned, and a “security roles” table which determines which security roles get which privileges. Both of these tables have a security_group_id and are isolated with a VPD policy, which means each tenant is free to set up its own set of security roles, and assign privileges to them.

    The “privileges” table has the following structure: (security_group_id, security_role_id, start_date, end_date, view_allowed_yn, edit_allowed_yn, delete_allowed_yn, admin_allowed_yn, etc.) End-users can add multiple privileges to a role and set each View/Edit/Delete/Admin option on or off as required. My privileges table will have about 30 columns, which is the range of different options the customer actually wants and needs. In some cases privileges are compressed – e.g. instead of allowing users to grant Insert/Update/Delete separately, they just wanted a single generic “Edit” privilege which allows creating, updating and deleting records.

    The other half of the solution is to create one authorization scheme in APEX for each attribute in the “privileges” table – e.g. one for “View Allowed”, one for “Edit Allowed”, etc. The authorization scheme calls a PL/SQL function which determines whether the current user has any active Security Role which has an active Privilege with the relevant setting switched on. I then apply this authorization scheme to the various elements in the APEX application that are needed to allow that type of action to be done – e.g. buttons, readonly attributes of forms, navigation items, etc.

    I hope this helps!

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