If you haven’t seen Fabian Pascal’s blog before, it’s because he’s only just started it – but he’ll be publishing new material, as well as articles previously published at Database Debunkings, infamous for his fundamental, no-holds-barred, uncompromising take on what the Relational Model is, what it isn’t, and what that means for all professionals who design databases.
It was with sadness that I saw the site go relatively static over the past years, and to see it being revived is a fresh blast of cool air in a world that continues to be inundated by fads and misconceptions. Of particular note was the “THE VOCIFEROUS IGNORANCE HALL OF SHAME“… I’m looking forward to seeing the old vigorous debates that will no doubt be revived or rehashed.
The pure view of the Relational model of data is, perhaps, too idealistic for some – impractical for day-to-day use in a SQL-dominated world. Personally, I’ve found (although I cannot pretend to be an expert, in any sense, on this topic) that starting from a fundamentally pure model, unconstrained by physical limitations, conceived at an almost ideal, Platonic level, allows me to discover the simplest, most provably “correct” solution for any data modelling problem. At some stage I have to then “downgrade” it to a form that is convenient and pragmatic for implementation in a SQL database like Oracle; in spite of this, having that logical design in the back of my head helps to highlight potential inconsistencies or data integrity problems that must then be handled by the application.
That this situation is, in fact, not the best of all possible worlds, is something that we can all learn and learn again. Have a look, and see what you think: dbdebunk.blogspot.com.au.
I recently saw this question on StackOverflow (“Is there any way to determine if a package has state in Oracle?”) which caught my attention.
You’re probably already aware that when a package is recompiled, any sessions that were using that package won’t even notice the change; unless that package has “state” – i.e. if the package has one or more package-level variables or constants. The current value of these variables and constants is kept in the PGA for each session; but if you recompile the package (or modify something on which the package depends), Oracle cannot know for certain whether the new version of the package needs to reset the values of the variables or not, so it errs on the side of caution and discards them. The next time the session tries to access the package in any way, Oracle will raise ORA-04068, and reset the package state. After that, the session can try again and it will work fine.
Side Note: There are a number of approaches to solving the ORA-04068 problem, some of which are given as answers to this question here. Not all of them are appropriate for every situation. Another approach not mentioned there is to avoid or minimize it – move all the package variables to a separate package, which hopefully will be invalidated less often.
It’s quite straightforward to tell whether a given package has “state” and thus has the potential for causing ORA-04068: look for any variables or constants declared in the package specification or body. If you have a lot of packages, however, you might want to get a listing of all of them. To do this, you can use the new PL/Scope feature introduced in Oracle 11g.
select object_name AS package, type, name AS variable_name from user_identifiers where object_type IN ('PACKAGE','PACKAGE BODY') and usage = 'DECLARATION' and type in ('VARIABLE','CONSTANT') and usage_context_id in ( select usage_id from user_identifiers where type = 'PACKAGE' );
If you have compiled the packages in the schema with PL/Scope on (i.e.
alter session set plscope_settings='IDENTIFIERS:ALL';), this query will list all the packages and the variables that mean they will potentially have state.
Before this question was raised, I hadn’t used PL/Scope for real; it was quite pleasing to see how easy it was to use to answer this particular question. This also illustrates a good reason why I like to hang out on Stackoverflow – it’s a great way to learn something new every day.
DATEis not a date.
DATE '2012-06-22'is not a date.
CURRENT_DATEis not a date.
SYSDATEis not a date.
TRUNC(SYSDATE)is not a date.
TO_DATE('22/06/2012','DD/MM/YYYY')is not a date.
Oracle SQL does not have a native date datatype.
Explanation: the datatype called “DATE” actually represents a Date+Time. It always has a time portion. For example, the literal expression
DATE '2012-06-22'has a time component that means midnight, to the nearest second. It is only by convention that a DATE with a time of 00:00:00 is used to represent the whole day, rather than exactly midnight; but this convention only works if the developer carefully writes his code to ensure this is true.
To an experienced Oracle developer, this is not a problem, it feels perfectly natural to say “DATE” but internally to be thinking in terms of time values. It’s easy to forget that we’re even doing this subconsciously. To an outsider (e.g. business analysts, testers, Java developers), it can be confusing – and it is often not immediately obvious that the confusion exists. It’s not until you start explaining why
SYSDATE <= DATE '2012-06-22' evaluates to FALSE, even if today is the 22nd day of the month of June in the year of our Lord 2012 that you realise they have been labouring under a false assumption: that a
DATE is a date, that it represents the full 24-hour period that a normal human would call “22 June 2012″.
If I was invited to change the name of just one thing in Oracle (and everyone was willing to make all the changes necessary to their code to accommodate my whim) it would be to change “DATE” to “DATETIME”.
I ask you: is there anything else in Oracle that confuses outsiders more often than this misnomer?
P.S. Now for a freebie: here is a summary of a number of transformations that may be done to remove the TRUNC function call around a date column (a and b are all of type DATE):
TRUNC(a) = TRUNC(b) => (a BETWEEN TRUNC(b) AND TRUNC(b)+0.99999) TRUNC(a) < TRUNC(b) => a < TRUNC(b) TRUNC(a) <= TRUNC(b) => a < TRUNC(b)+1 TRUNC(a) > TRUNC(b) => a >= TRUNC(b)+1 TRUNC(a) >= TRUNC(b) => a >= TRUNC(b) TRUNC(a) = b => (a BETWEEN b AND b+0.99999 AND b = TRUNC(b)) TRUNC(a) < b => (a < TRUNC(b)+1 AND NOT (a=TRUNC(a) AND b=TRUNC(b))) TRUNC(a) <= b => a < TRUNC(b)+1 TRUNC(a) > b => a >= TRUNC(b)+1 TRUNC(a) >= b => (a >= TRUNC(b) AND NOT (b=TRUNC(b)))
What’s the biggest clue you can give that your database is vulnerable to SQL injection? When your list of “forbidden words” looks suspiciously like a sample of SQL / PL/SQL keywords:
I notice that they haven’t forbidden BEGIN, CREATE, MERGE, or TRUNCATE …
Congressman Peters, your IT staff are doing it wrong.
1. Overly-generic parameter types
When you send an email, it will have at least one recipient, and it may have many recipients. However, no email will have more than one sender. Yet, I wrote the package procedure like this:
TYPE address_type IS RECORD (name VARCHAR2(100) ,email_address VARCHAR2(200) ); TYPE address_list_type IS TABLE OF address_type INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; PROCEDURE send (i_sender IN address_list_type ,i_recipients IN address_list_type ,i_subject IN VARCHAR2 ,i_message IN VARCHAR2 );
Why I didn’t have i_sender be a simple address_type, I can’t remember. Internally, the procedure only looks at i_sender(1) – if a caller were to pass in a table of more than one sender, it raises an exception.
2. Functional programming to avoid local variables
Simple is best, and there’s nothing wrong with using local variables. I wish I’d realised these facts when I wrote functions like this:
FUNCTION address (i_name IN VARCHAR2 ,i_email_address IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN address_list_type; FUNCTION address (i_address IN address_list_type ,i_name IN VARCHAR2 ,i_email_address IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN address_list_type;
All that so that callers can avoid *one local variable*:
EMAIL_PKG.send (i_sender => EMAIL_PKG.address('joe','email@example.com') ,i_recipients => EMAIL_PKG.address( EMAIL_PKG.address( 'jill', 'firstname.lastname@example.org') ,'bob', 'email@example.com') ,i_subject => 'hello' ,i_message => 'world' );
See what I did there with the recipients? Populating an array on the fly with just function calls. Smart eh? But rather useless, as it turns out; when we need to send multiple recipients, it’s usually populated within a loop of unknown sized, so this method doesn’t work anyway.
Go ahead – face your past and dig up some code you wrote 5 years ago or more. I think, if you don’t go “WTF!” every now and then, you probably haven’t learned anything or improved yourself in the intervening years. Just saying :)
I’m doing some research for an uncoming Oracle conference – to help, please answer this poll. Thank you!
Update: thanks to everyone who voted – it certainly looks like there is a significant number of places still running Oracle versions older than 10g. It is likely that many of these will be getting ready to upgrade or be decommissioned, but even then our 7/8i/9i database skills will be relevant for some time to come.
If you haven’t voted yet, the poll is still open.
Ever since I downloaded the Alexandria PL/SQL library, I haven’t been able to put it down. Just recently I decided I wanted to serve up a whole lot of media files directly from Amazon’s S3 simple storage service, instead of serving them from within my EC2 (elastic compute) instance. They were just wasting my linux server’s time responding to http requests.
So, I quickly wrote the following code to transfer them:
DECLARE l_blob BLOB; BEGIN /* initialise my AWS session */ ALEX.amazon_aws_auth_pkg.init ( 'yyy-my-aws-id-yyy' , 'xxx-not-telling-xxx' , p_gmt_offset => -8); FOR rec IN ( SELECT id, filename, mime_type, location FROM myfiles WHERE location = 'http://myserver/media/' ) LOOP /* read the file from its current location */ l_blob := ALEX.http_util_pkg.get_blob_from_url (rec.location || rec.filename); IF DBMS_LOB.getLength(l_blob) > 0 THEN /* upload the file to Amazon S3 */ ALEX.amazon_aws_s3_pkg.new_object ( 'mybucket' , rec.filename , l_blob , rec.mime_type , ALEX.amazon_aws_s3_pkg.g_acl_public_read); UPDATE myfiles SET location = 'https://mybucket.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/' WHERE id = rec.id; COMMIT; END IF; END LOOP; END;
After a short while, all the files had been copied across to my bucket on S3, and my table updated so that my web site now points people’s browsers to the new location for those files.
Of course, I could have used UTL_FILE to read the files from disk, but then I’d have to first create a directory, and write a loop to read the file in chunks into the BLOB. Why bother with all that when I can just call http_util_pkg.get_blog_from_url and get it all in one go?
That’s the trouble with powerful utilities like Alexandria: they’re too easy to use, make tasks like this trivial, and you start finding all sorts of uses for them. All of a sudden, Alexandria is your hammer, and the world is full of nails.
See also: this quick intro to using Alexandria’s API for Amazon S3.
Normally, when you see code like this in a production system, you should duck your head and run:
SELECT NVL( MAX( id ), 0 ) + 1 INTO :new_id FROM mytable;
What’s wrong with this code?
I hope the first answer that rolls off your tongue has something to do with concurrency – i.e. two sessions that run this around the same time will not see uncommitted rows from each other, and so are likely to try to insert rows with conflicting identifiers.
I hope the second answer that you might mention has to do with performance – even considering there’s a unique index on the column, this code will still need to read at least one index block to get the latest ID (assuming the query optimiser chooses to do a MIN/MAX index scan so that it doesn’t have to scan the entire index before returning a result). In a high load system this cost might be unacceptable.
Of course, the first problem (concurrency) could be solved by serializing access to the “get the next ID” function, e.g. with a DBMS_LOCK. We all know, however, that there’s no sane reason to serialize this when Oracle already provides a perfectly good mechanism for generating unique IDs, with virtually no serialization – sequences.
CREATE SEQUENCE my_id_seq; SELECT my_id_seq.NEXTVAL INTO :new_id FROM DUAL;
Sequences have the benefits of guaranteeing uniqueness, and if their “cache” setting is set appropriately, will add a negligible amount of overhead for serialization.
Problem solved. Easy, right? I bet you’re wondering why I added the word “Normally” to my first sentence in this post….
Question: When might using “SELECT MAX(id) + 1″ ever be an acceptable source of unique identifiers?
Answer: Global Temporary tables.
If I’ve inserted any rows into a global temporary table, by definition no other session can see my data, so the first consideration, concurrency, is not an issue.
Also, if I’m not expecting to ever insert many rows into my global temporary table, I can be reasonably confident that performance will not be an issue either. Plus, if I put an index on the ID column, that query will be quite inexpensive.
Conclusion: if you are using global temporary tables, you don’t have to use sequences to generate unique identifiers for them. I’m not saying you shouldn’t, of course – a sequence may be faster, and may even lead to simpler code in some cases – but in other cases you might decide to forego a sequence – one less object, with perhaps its role grants and synonyms, to deploy.
Now, of course, you have to ask yourself, why query the table at all? Why not store that latest ID in a private global variable in a package? In fact, we can create a simple package to replace the sequence, e.g.:
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE my_table_pkg IS FUNCTION next_id RETURN my_table.id%TYPE; END my_table_pkg; CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY my_table_pkg IS g_latest_id my_table.id%TYPE; FUNCTION next_id RETURN my_table.id%TYPE IS BEGIN g_latest_id := NVL(g_latest_id, 0) + 1; RETURN g_latest_id; END next_id; END my_table_pkg;
Well, now you know what to do. Whenever you need to generate a unique set of identifiers for a global temporary table, you’ve got a choice of options: sequence, package variable, or a “max(id)+1″ query.
I needed a table that could only ever have one row – if anyone tried to insert a second row they’d get an error.
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX only_one_row_allowed ON mytable (1);
INSERT INTO mytable VALUES ('x');
ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.ONLY_ONE_ROW_ALLOWED) violated
I’ve just opened my new web site, built entirely in Oracle Application Express, and announced it on my other blog:
“www.myhomecontents.com.au has been built with just one simple purpose – to help you keep track of your home contents. It’s in “beta” status at the moment, so I’m keen to get as many people as possible to try it out to flesh out any bugs.”
Please check it out, and let me know what you think!